Anatomical Chart Company Catalogue 2014
New and updated charts to keep your patient education current!
M. 5645 Understanding Breast Cancer, 3rd Edition 978-1-4511-8565-2 Laminated 978-1-4511-8564-5 Paper N. 1684 Understanding Prostate Cancer, 2nd Edition 978-1-4511-9169-1 Laminated 978-1-4511-9168-4 Paper O. 3251 Understanding High Cholesterol, 2nd Edition 978-1-4511-9324-4 Laminated
978-1-4511-9325-1 Paper P. 3381 Hand Hygiene 978-1-4511-9338-1 Laminated
Phospholipid (other fats)
Understanding High Cholesterol What isHighCholesterol? Cholesterol isawaxy, fat-like substance found inallofyourbody’s cells.Cholesterol comes from two sources,yourbodyandyour food.Cholesterol ismade in the liver andother cells and is also found in food from animals, likedairyproducts, eggs, andmeat. You can endupwithhigh cholesterolbecauseof the foodsyou eatand the rateatwhichyourbodybreaksdown cholesterol.Your body needs a certain amount of cholesterol to build andmaintain cells, but toomuch or too little cholesterol can create amajor health risk.Extracholesterolcanbuilduponyourarterywallsandover time,cholesteroldeposits,calledplaque,maynarrowyour arteries causing lessbloodflowor form a clot,puttingyou at risk forheartdisease,heart attack and stroke.
When to Practice Hand Hygiene in Patient Care? •Touchingapatient •Clean/asepticprocedure •GloveUse Before •Bodyfluidexposure •Touchingpatientorpatient surroundings •Gloveuse After
Why is Hand Hygiene so Important? Handsare themainpathways togerm transmissionduringhealthcare. Therefore,goodhandhygiene is themost importantmethodofavoiding spreadinggermsandpreventinghealth-careassociated infections.
Washhandswhen visibly soiled.Otherwise, use hand rub. Durationof handwashingprocess: 40 – 60 seconds. Hand Washing Techniques
Hand Rubbing Techniques Rubhandswith alcohol for hand hygiene.Wash handswhen visibly soiled. Durationof hand rubbingprocess: 20 –30 seconds.
WhatCausesHighCholesterol? •Eating anunhealthydiet
CHOLESTEROL MADEBYYOURBODY (LIVER)
– with toomuch saturated fat, trans fat,and cholesterol.Saturated fat and cholesterolare in foods that come fromanimals, suchasmeats,wholemilk, eggyolks,butter,and cheese.Trans fat is found in fried foodsandpackaged foods, suchas cookies, crackers,and chips. •Excessbodyweight •Lackofphysicalactivity •Age – menover age45 andwomenover55 areathigher risk. •Gender – men aremoreprone tohigh cholesterol thanwomen—untilwomen reach 50 to55when naturally-occurring cholesterol levels inwomen increase. •Familyhistory – somepeoplehaveageneticpredisposition tohigh cholesterol.Genespasseddown fromboth sides ofyour familiesmay causeyourbody tomake toomuchor too little cholesterol. •Somediseases – diabetes, thyroiddisease,metabolicdiseaseandothers. Thefirst step inpreventinghigh cholesterolandultimately,heartdisease,heart attackor stroke is toget a simpleblood test to checkyour cholesterol levels.Healthyadults should have this testdone everyfiveyears. Ifyou are at increased risk forheartdiseaseor ifyou areamanover 45or awomanover55,yourdoctormighthaveyou testedmoreoften. • Adopt ahealthier lifestyle including: – regularaerobic exercise – don’t smoke – maintainahealthyweight – eat anutritiousdiet low in saturated fat and cholesterol • LowerLDL levels Clinical trialshavedemonstrated that loweringLDLcholesterol hasmanybenefits and saves lives. • Take cholesterolmedications, ifprescribedby ahealthpractitioner Evenafter adoptingahealthier lifestyle,your cholesterol level maynot reach targetandamedicationmaybe required. HDL •Cigarette smoking •Certainmedicines – thiazidediuretics,beta-blockers, retinoids, estrogenand corticosteroids. Prevention andManagement • Get regular cholesterol screenings:
C h o l e s t e r o l t r a n s p o r t i n t h e b l o o d
Applyapalmfulofproduct inacuppedhand,coveringall surfaces.
Applyenough soap tocoverallhand surfaces.
3.Leftpalmover rightdorsum (top sideof righthand)with interlaced fingers.Reverseandplace right palmover leftdorsum (top sideof lefthand)with interlacedfingers.
Whatare theDifferentTypesofCholesterol? Cholesterol must travel through the bloodstream to get to your cells. Because cholesterol is a fat, it separates from blood like oil fromwater, to keep this from happening; cholesterol attaches to a protein. The combination of cholesterol and other lipids (fats andphyospholipds)withprotein is called a lipoprotein.Although there is only one type of cholesterol, there are several types of lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. Blood tests for cholesterol generally provide results for the following typesof lipoproteins: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)BADCHOLESTEROL •Called “bad cholesterol”becausehigh levels can lead toheartdisease and stroke. •Transports cholesterol fromyou liver to the cells thatneed it. LeftoverLDLs that arenotneeded release their cholesterol into theblood. High-density lipoproteins (HDL)GOODCHOLESTEROL •Called“good cholesterol”becausehigh levels reduce the risk for heartdiseaseand stroke. •Scientists think thatHDLhelpsget ridofbad cholesterol in theblood. HDLpicksup extra cholesterol and carries it to the liver,which then flushes it from thebody. Triglycerides •Arenot cholesterol,butare adifferent typeof fat.Excess calories, alcohol,or sugarsare converted into triglycerides and stored in fat cells throughout thebody. •High levels can raise the risk forheartdisease. •Areoftenpartofablood testdoctorsdo to check cholesterol levels.
4.Placehandspalm topalm withfingers interlaced.
RisksofHighCholesterol Cholesterol plays a big part in the development of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is thebuildupof fattydeposits includingcholesterol, on the inner lining of arteries. This buildup (called plaque) may narrow the arteries causing adecrease in bloodflow or a blood clot maydevelopwhich can clog or block the artery.As a result of this, cholesterolmay increase the risk of heartdisease, stroke, and other vasculardiseases.
5.Placebacksoffingers toopposing palmswithfingers interlocked.
6.Clasp rightpalmaround left thumb and rotate.Reverse -clasp leftpalm around right thumband rotate.
7.Claspfingersof righthandand rub leftpalm rotationallyback- wardsand forwards.Reverse – claspfingersof lefthandand rub rightpalm rotationallybackwards and forwards.
When the levelof cholesterol in the bloodstream isnormal, arterialwalls remain smoothand slippery.
WhatLevelsofCholesterol areHealthy? Knowingyour cholesterol levels is an importantpartofunderstandingyourown risk forheartdisease.Todeterminehowmuch cholesterol is inyourbody,yourdoctorwillgiveyouablood test (also called a lipidprofileorpanel).Cholesterol levels aremeasured inmilligrams ( mg )of cholesterolperdeciliter (dL)ofblood in theUnitedStates and someother countries.Thegeneralguidelines belowwillhelpyouunderstandyour cholesterol test results.
TYPE TOTALCHOLESTEROL the levelof allof the lipids (fats) inyourblood, includingLDLandHDLcholesterol
200-239mg/dL–borderlinehigh 240mg/dLand above–high Apersonwith this levelhasmore than twice the riskofheartdisease as someonewhose cholesterol isbelow 200mg/dL. 100-129mg/dL–nearor abovedesirable 130-159mg/dL–borderlinehigh 160- 189mg/dL–high 190mg/dLandup -veryhigh ThemoreLDL there is in theblood, thegreater the riskofheartdisease. LDLcholesterol canbuildupon thewallsofyour arteries andover time may lead toheart attackor stroke. Less than 40mg/dL (formen) Less than 50mg/dL (forwomen) LowHDLcholesterol is amajor risk factor forheartdisease.
Less than 200mg/dL Generally, a lower total cholesterol level isbetter.
When cholesterol levels arehigh, excess cholesterol can buildupon thewalls of the arteries and may eventually reduce bloodflow.
Less than 70md/dL– ideal forpeople atveryhigh risk ofheartdisease and stroke. Less than 100mg/dL–Lowest riskofheart attack and stroke.
Dryhands thoroughlywitha single-use towel.
Use towel to turnoff faucet.
40mg/dLorhigher 60mg/dLand above is consideredprotection againstheartdisease.
Alcohol hand rubs arepreferredoverhandwashing because alcohol removesmicroorganisms from handsmorequickly and effectively thanhandwashing.However, after caring for apatienton isolation forClostridiumdifficile infectionorNorovirus infection, hands shouldbewashedwith soap andwater. Alcoholwill not kill these twomicroorganisms. •Alcohol is lessdrying to the skin than handwashing. •Hand careproducts shouldbe used regularly to keep skinof the hands ingood condition. •Finger nail tips shouldbe kept short—not longer than¼ inch (.6 cm) •Artificialnails should notbewornby healthcareworkerswho care for high-riskpatients Reminders
150-199mg/dL–borderlinehigh 200-499mg/dL–hig 500mg/dLand above–veryhigh *Normal triglyceride levelsvaryby age and sex.
Ruptured plaque Blood clot
Less than 150mg/dL (150mg/dL isnormal)
High triglyceride levels inyourblood canhelp clog arterieswithplaque (cholesteroland fatbuildup) andmay raise the riskofheart attack and stroke. Above 600mg/dL increases the risk forpancreatitis.
Plaque can rupture, resulting in ablood clot,whichmay cut offbloodflow.
* These levels should beused as a generalguideline.Current recommendationsmight have changed and should be followed instead ofwhat is statedhere.Target levels alsodiffer according to thenumber of risk factorsyou have for coronary arterydisease. Please see yourdoctor tofind outwhatyour target level should be.
PublishedbyAnatomicalChartCompany| Developed in consultationwithDr.DouglasS.Moodie
PublishedbyAnatomicalChartCompany.Developed in consultationwithC.GlenMayhallM.D.
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